Background
The DDCT process and review of project compliance with Executive Order 2011-5 (SGEO) will be coordinated through the DDCT web application.

The proponent should provide the most complete and comprehensive description of a project as possible. Splitting a project into smaller components can cause delay in review and could risk denial of a permit necessary for the entire project. It is recommended that proponents thoughtfully consider and include for review potential future development(s) and/or infrastructure associated with or that may be needed to support the current proposed project.

If the proponent has a concern that a project will not comply with the SGEO, the proponent should contact the WGFD and appropriate land management and/or permitting agencies as soon as possible. Noncompliance with the SGEO is not an automatic permit denial and all projects will be reviewed and potential impacts to local sage-grouse populations and habitat will be assessed. Advanced planning with the permitting agencies and WGFD is the recommended way to resolve issues.

If the proponent submits a DDCT that is not in compliance, the agencies involved will need to discuss all options and potential impacts to local sage-grouse populations and habitat. Initiating these discussions in advance of the final DDCT submittal may yield timelier review/decision results.

Federal Surface or Mineral Rights are involved in the Proposed Project
If, on federal surface/mineral, the proponent works with the appropriate federal land management agency on the DDCT process and disturbance delineations, then:
  • The federal agency submits the DDCT (and worksheet) for technical review to the DDCT Data Steward. The DDCT Data Steward will work with the federal agency in completing the technical review process (Note: the federal agency may use a contractor to make the corrections). When completed, the federal agency also submits the DDCT worksheet to the DDCT Data Steward.
  • Once technical review is completed, The DDCT Data Steward submits the DDCT final results and DDCT worksheet to WGFD HPP for policy review.
  • HPP coordinates with state agencies and the federal agency if there are issues with SGEO exceedances or compliance.
  • HPP sends a letter regarding SGEO compliance and recommendations to the federal agency and cc's the proponent and permitting agencies that may also be involved in the project.
  • If agencies have questions about the recommendations, they should contact HPP.
No Federal Surface or Mineral Rights are involved in the Proposed Project
If federal surface or mineral is not involved, the project proponent (Note: could be a consultant) completes the DDCT process, then:
  • Submits the DDCT to the DDCT Data Steward for technical review. The DDCT Data Steward will work with the proponent to complete the technical review process. When completed, the proponent submits the DDCT worksheet to the DDCT Data Steward.
  • The DDCT Data Steward submits the DDCT final results and DDCT worksheet to WGFD HPP for policy review.
  • HPP coordinates with state agencies if there are issues with SGEO exceedances or compliance.
  • HPP sends a letter regarding SGEO compliance and recommendations to the proponent and cc's permitting agencies.
  • If agencies have questions about the recommendations, they should contact HPP.

Core Area Definitions

Definition of Non-Core
Non-Core is that area outside of core but inside the sage-grouse habitat range.

Wildfires within a DDCT

What the Executive Order says
Sage Grouse Executive Order “Following wildfire, lands shall be treated as disturbed pending an implementation management plan with trend data showing the area returning to functional sage grouse habitat". This is specific only to wildfire situations. This direction is not intended for other incentive/mitigation situations.
Clarification of what the Executive Order saysSGIT
The goal is to incentivize restoration of wildfire burns to return as much of the affected burned area back to suitable habitat over time. This is a landscape effort and is not considered mitigation banking. This process should be used when wildfire is impacting the disturbance percentages.

A Technical Team comprised of BLM, USFS, WGFD, NRCS, LWG, private landowners would develop the plan and trending data. It would be the responsibility of the project proponent to conduct the monitoring. An upward trend would be determined through the collection of 5 years of data and reviewed by the technical team.

Suitable Sage-Grouse Habitat Definition

Definition
Sage-grouse require somewhat different seasonal habitats distributed over large areas to complete their life cycle. All of these habitats consist of, are associated with, or are immediately adjacent to, sagebrush. If sage-grouse seasonal habitat use maps do not exist for the project site the following description of suitable habitat should be used to determine areas of unsuitable sage grouse habitat for development siting purposes. An abbreviated description of a complex system cannot incorporate all aspects of, or exceptions to, what habitats a local sage-grouse population may or may not utilize. Refer to the BLM’s Sage-Grouse Habitat Assessment Framework (HAF) for further information.

"Suitable" sage-grouse habitat (nesting, breeding, brood-rearing, or winter) is within the mapped occupied range of sage-grouse, and:

  1. has 5% or greater sagebrush canopy cover (for nesting, brood-rearing and/or winter) as measured by the point intercept method. "Sagebrush" includes all species and subspecies of the genus Artemisia except the mat-forming sub-shrub species: frigida (fringed) and pedatifida (birdfoot); or
  2. is riparian, wet meadow (native or introduced) or areas of alfalfa or other suitable forbs (brood rearing habitat) within 275 meters of sagebrush habitat with 5% or greater sagebrush canopy cover (for roosting/loafing); or
  3. is reclaimed habitat containing at least 2 native grasses (at least one bunchgrass) and 2 native forbs (see "reclamation" in Attachment B) and no point with in the grass/forb habitat is more than 60 meters from adjacent 5% or greater sagebrush cover; or
  4. is "transitional" sage-grouse habitat which is land that has been treated or burned prior to 2011 resulting in < 5% sagebrush cover but is actively managed to meet a minimum of 5% sagebrush canopy cover with associated grasses and forbs by 2021 (as determined by analysis of local condition and trend) and may or may not be considered "disturbed". Land that doesn't meet the above vegetation criteria by 2021 should be considered disturbed.

Habitat treatments conducted after 2010 must meet the current “Wyoming Game and Fish Department Protocols for Treating Sagebrush to be Consistent with Wyoming Executive Order 2011 -5; Greater Sage-Grouse Core Area Protection” or the habitat treated will be considered disturbed. Following wildfire, lands shall be considered "disturbed" pending an implemented management plan with trend data showing the area returning to functional sage grouse habitat.

"Unsuitable" sage-grouse habitatnote is land within the historic range of sage-grouse that did not, does not, nor will not provide sage-grouse habitat due to natural ecological conditions such as badlands, canyons or forests. See "Specific Stipulation" number 4 in Attachment B of Executive Order 2011-5 for conditions under which less restrictive stipulations may be applied to unsuitable habitats.

"Disturbed" suitable sage-grouse habitatnote is land that has been converted from formerly suitable habitat to grasslands, croplands, mined, or otherwise physically disturbed areas.

To evaluate the 5% disturbance cap per average 640 acres using the Density/Disturbance Calculation Tool (DDCT), suitable habitat is considered disturbed when it is removed and unavailable for immediate sage-grouse use. These areas may provide habitat at some time in the future through succession or restoration. Disturbed suitable habitats could also include those permanent disturbances such as major reservoirs and cities that once were considered suitable.

Determining Disturbed Habitat Change to SGEOSGIT
The following items are guidelines for determining disturbed habitat for the DDCT process:
  1. Long-term removal occurs when habitat is physically removed through activities that replace suitable habitat with long term occupancy of unsuitable habitat such as a road, well pad or active mine.
  2. Short-term removal occurs when vegetation is removed in small areas, but restored to suitable habitat within a few years of disturbance, such as a successfully reclaimed pipeline, or successfully reclaimed drill hole or pit.
  3. There may be additional suitable habitat considered disturbed between two or more long term (greater than 1 year) anthropogenic disturbance activities with a footprint greater than 10 acres each if the activities are located such that sage grouse use of the suitable habitat between these activities is significantly reduced due to the close proximity (less than 1.2 miles apart, 0.6 mile from each activity) and resulting cumulative effects of these large scale activities. Exceptions may be provided.
  4. Land in northeast Wyoming (Figure 1 of Attachment B) that has had sagebrush removed post-1994 (based on Ortho-photo interpretation), and not recovered to suitable habitat will be considered disturbed when using the DDCT

    Vegetation Monitoring for Suitability CriteriaSGIT

    Measurement Goal
    Define measurements that should be taken when there is uncertainty concerning the status of reclaimed areas contributing to suitable habitat. If sagebrush canopy cover is 5+%, as measured by the method described in the Habitat Assessment Framework (HAF), it is considered suitable. The EO requires the below standards + sagebrush for all reclamation (where appropriate as described). When sagebrush canopy cover is <5%, but within 60 meters of >10% sagebrush canopy cover measure to determine compliance with the following conditions:

    Measure for 2 (or more) desirable native grasses at least one of which is a bunchgrass. The species present in the reclaimed area should be reflected in an appropriate reference site, described in the ecological site description (ESD) for the reclaimed site(s), or be representative of pre-disturbance species data. A reference site will be agreed upon and determined by the land management agency or owner, WGFD and the proponent. It is recognized that reference sites could be numerous for linear features.

    The frequency of occurrence of grass is expected to meet or exceed 70% of the frequency of grass as measured on the reference site, or as described in the ESD for the reclaimed sites(s), or as represented in the pre-disturbance species data. Grass canopy cover measurement is expected to meet or exceed 70% of the grass canopy cover as measured on the reference site, or as described in the ESD for the reclaimed sites(s), or as represented in the pre-disturbance species data. Likewise, measure for 2 desirable native forbs. The frequency of occurrence of forbs is expected to meet or exceed 70% of the frequency of forbs as measured on the reference site, or as described in the ESD for the reclaimed sites(s), or as represented in the pre-disturbance species data. Forbs canopy cover is expected to meet or exceed 70% of the forb canopy cover as measured on the reference site, or as described in the ESD for the reclaimed sites(s), or as represented in the pre-disturbance species data.

    Methodology
    Sampling timing for grasses, forbs, and shrubs is typically not later than July 1.

    Canopy cover for grasses/forbs: Line Point Intercept (see HAF). Frequency for grasses/forbs: Plot (rectangles, squares or circles) frequency computed as number of quadrats with the species of interest rooted within it divided by the total number of quadrats that are sampled. This value will be multiplied by 100 to yield frequency as a percentage. It is recommended that a minimum of 5 to 10, 30-50-m transects be conducted with a minimum of 10 to 20 quadrats (e.g. Daubenmire frame or quadrat appropriate to the site) placed equidistantly along each transect.

    Canopy cover for sagebrush: Line Intercept (see HAF).

    Sample size: The HAF provides sample size recommendations. Final estimates must include a 90% confidence interval computed around the mean values estimated from vegetation sampling.note

    Vegetation Treatment Protocols

    Vegetation Treatment Protocols for Sage Brush
    Wyoming Game and Fish has put together treatment protocols and are available to download
    The BLM Habitat Assessment Framework (HAF) definition of "unsuitable" includes both "disturbed" and "unsuitable" habitats as defined above
    The BLM Habitat Assessment Framework (HAF) definition of "unsuitable" includes both "disturbed" and "unsuitable" habitats as defined above
    The following items are guidelines for determining suitable disturbed habitat for the DDCT process:
    1. Long-term removal occurs when habitat is physically removed through activities that replace suitable habitat with long term occupancy of unsuitable habitat such as a road, well pad or active mine.
    2. Short-term removal occurs when vegetation is removed in small areas, but restored to suitable habitat within a few years of disturbance, such as a successfully reclaimed pipeline, or successfully reclaimed drill hole or pit.
    3. There may be additional suitable habitat considered disturbed between two or more long term (greater than 1 year) anthropogenic disturbance activities with a footprint greater than 10 acres each if the activities are located such that sage-grouse use of the suitable habitat between these activities is significantly reduced due to the close proximity (less than 1.2 miles apart, 0.6 miles from each activity) and resulting in cumulative effects of these large scale activities. Exemptions may be provided.
    4. Land in northeast Wyoming (Figure 1 of Attachment B) that has had sagebrush removed post-1994 (based on Orthophoto interpretation) and not recovered to suitable habitat will be considered disturbed when using the DDCT.
    Approved by the SGIT on October 11th, 2012
    Approved by the SGIT on March 22nd, 2012
    The purpose in providing a 90% confidence interval is twofold. First, the 90% confidence interval provides an assessment of the precision of each estimate. For example, an estimate that includes zero indicates an estimate with no confidence, likely related to inadequate sampling in variable landscapes. Second, a 90% confidence interval can be used as a statistical diagnostic tool to assess whether each respective vegetation objective has been met. For example, once the target recovery level is identified, the recovery team can assess whether that level has been reached by assessing whether the target objective is included within the estimated 90% confidence interval. For instance, if the target objective is 5% canopy cover for big sagebrush canopy cover and the 90% confidence interval for the estimate from the line intercept method is 3% to 7%, then the reclamation objective has been met. If the 90% confidence interval is –3% to 13%, then there is no confidence in this estimate. On the other hand, a 90% confidence interval from 8% to 10% would indicate that the reclamation effort exceeded the recovery objective. Likewise, a 90% confidence interval of 2%–4% indicates the objective of 5% big sagebrush canopy cover has not been met. Precision of estimates can be improved through stratification of sampling units and/or increasing the number of sub-samples in each sampling unit. We encourage practitioners to conduct pilot studies and consult with statisticians to identify sampling designs that will provide precise estimates.
    Approved by the SGIT on January 10th, 2013

    What is the DDCT and why is it needed

    What is the DDCT?
    The Density and Disturbance Calculation Tool, or DDCT, is a spatially based tool that calculates both the number of disruptive activities averaged per square mile (640 acres) and total surface disturbance within the DDCT assessment area. The assessment area is created based on buffers around proposed projects in protected sage-grouse core areas, and subsequent buffers around any occupied, core area leks within the first buffer. Limits for disruptive activities and disturbances, along with buffer distances are laid out in the Governor’s Executive Order 2011-5.

    For additional information please refer to the following documents:

    Executive Order 2011-5 - Greater Sage-Grouse Core Area Protection

    Sage-Grouse Habitat Management Policy on Public Lands

    Sage Grouse Executive Order Check Off List

    Why is the DDCT needed?
    With the signing of the Governor’s Executive Order 2011-5 it became necessary for state of federally permitted development within a Sage-Grouse Core Areas to comply with the SGEO requirements. The DDCT provides information on the density and disturbance thresholds related to the SGEO requirements.

    Surface Disturbances

    What is a surface disturbance?
    Any anthropogenic or wildfire surface disturbance that results in loss of sage-grouse habitat is considered disturbed in the DDCT calculation. Surface disturbance includes, but is not limited to, roads, well pads, mining operations, cropland, buildings, some vegetation treatments, wind turbines, and pipelines. Some linear features are considered exempt from DDCT calculations; please see the “Disturbance Calculation Process for Linear Features” for additional information.
    How are surface disturbances mapped?
    Some surface disturbances come from other spatial datasets; however, these spatial datasets are not complete for all disturbances in the state. For mapping disturbances in the DDCT assessment area, a method called head’s up digitizing needs to be used to ensure all disturbances are mapped. When performing head’s up digitizing make sure to use a minimum 1:5000 scale and the 2009 NAIP aerial photography images and be sure to digitize around the outside perimeter of the disturbance. Visual examples of disturbances are provided below:

    Ranch, road, and building
    Road and cropland
    Road and pipeline/utility corridor scar
    Well pad and road
    Landing Strip
    Ranch and assorted disturbance
    Pipeline and watering hole
    Pipeline, road, and electrical infrastructure
    What information about surface disturbances is needed
    Information needed for surface disturbances to be handled correctly within the web application includes defining whether it is a disruption, a disturbance only, or exempt. Disturbance and Disruption are the two fields used to determine how the web application counts the disturbances. Below is a table with example of valid combinations:

    Disturbance Disruption Model Use Use
    Yes Yes Disruption (1/640 count and contribute to percent disturbed) Oil and Gas infrastructure with human presence excluding access road, pipelines, and power lines, or active mining operations.
    Yes No Disturbance (only used in percent disturbed) All other anthropogenic disturbance
    No No Exempt Areas determined to be “de minimus” or disturbed but meeting the suitable habitat definition or pre-1994 conditions in Northeast Wyoming

    Other useful information recorded with the disturbance is the type of disturbance it is. Values for the disturbance types can be found in the “Where can I find the values to put in the “Type” and “Category” Fields?” question below. The surface disturbance types are grouped into categories, which is the first number of the disturbance type number

    How are surface disturbances uploaded?
    Uploading surface disturbances, either proposed or existing, is possible in the web application if the features are contained in esri© Shapefile format.
    What information is needed in the esri© Shapefile?
    The esri© Shapefile must contains polygons of disturbances and a valid spatial reference. Other information contained in the esri© Shapefile can be used in the application if the data are available. Below is an example of how to code the disturbances and disruptions during the upload process

    Name Description Type Values
    Disturbance Disturbance Indicator Integer 1 is yes, 0 is no
    Disruption Disruption Indicator Integer 1 is yes, 0 is no
    Category Disturbance Category Integer First number of the type code
    Type Code for type of disturbance Text Values can be found below
    Comments Comments Text Open

    Can I download a blank disturbance shapefile?
    A blank disturbance shapefile is available by downloading this file
    Where can I find the values to put in the “Type” and “Category” Fields?
    The “Category” and “Type” are derived from the same table. The type is the whole two digit number, while the category is the first digit of the number. For example, a well pad would have a type of 48 and a category of 4. Below is the complete table:

    ID

    Description

    ID

    Description

    0 - Unknown 4 - Oil and Gas
    00 Unknown Type of Disturbance 40 General Oil/Gas Disturbance (type unknown or varied)
    1 - Road / Transportation 41 Abandoned Well Pad (oil/gas)
    10 Other Improved Road 42 Interim Reclamation
    11 Highway/Street (paved) 44 Test Well (oil/gas)
    12 Dirt Road (BLM, County) 45 Blowout Mud Pit (oil/gas)
    13 Railroad 46 Oil/Gas Structure
    14 Residential Driveway 47 Evaporation Pit
    15 Oil/Gas Access Road 48 Well Pad (general)
    16 Mining Access Road 5 - Mining
    17 Landing Strip 50 General Mining Disturbance (type unknown or varied)
    18 Right of Ways 51 Exploratory Scours
    19 Highway Construction 52 Blowout Mud Pit (mining)
    2 - Structure / Development 53 Drill Hole
    20 General Structure (type unknown or varied) 54 Test Well
    21 Private House/Structure 55 Abandoned Pad
    23 Mining structure (type unknown or varied) 56 Mining Pit
    24 Snow fence 57 Mining Reclamation (Large Scale)
    25 General fence (type unknown) 58 Gravel Pit/Gravel Storage
    26 Private Residential Development (general) 6 - Utilities
    27 Agricultural Development 60 General Electrical Disturbance (type unknown)
    28 Residential Area / City Boundaries 61 Power supply center
    29 Exclosure Fence 62 Power line/pole
    3 - Range Land 63 Windmill
    30 General Range Disturbance (type unknown or varied) 64 Landfill
    31 Water Source General (type unknown) 65 Telecommunication
    32 Cattle Waterhole 67 Pipeline
    33 Water Trough/Tank 7 - General Linear Disturbance
    34 Dam/Reservoir 70 General Linear Disturbance (type unknown)
    35 Cattle salt-lick 8 - Fire and Vegetation Treatments
    37 Man Made Wetland 80 Unknown Vegetation Treatment
    81 Wildfire
    82 Prescribed Burn
    83 Mechanical Treatment
    84 Chemical Treatment
    85 Habitat Improvement

    Disturbance Calculation Process for Linear Features

    The impacts of linear disturbances are varied. The following are suggestions for dealing with linear features:

    Roads
    Roads will contribute towards disturbance calculations, with the exception of two-track road less than 10 feet wide for a majority of the length. The actual footprint should be digitized.
    Transmission LinesSGIT
    Overhead transmission corridors established in Executive Order 2011-5 (1/2 mile either side of existing 115kV or larger lines and the east-west corridors mapped in Attachment D will not count toward disturbance calculations for any new projects located outside the corridors. In essence, Executive Order 2011-5-established corridors are considered unsuitable habitat for the purpose of DDCT calculations and will not be counted in the numerator (disturbance) or denominator (total DDCT acreage).

    The goal of Executive Order 2011-5 is to avoid further fragmenting areas with distribution and transmission lines of all sizes.

    Distribution and transmission lines are permitted inside SGEO designated corridors (Pages 4, 15, & 16). The same distribution and transmission lines are not permitted outside of corridors unless there is demonstration of no declines in sage-grouse populations (Pages 4 & 17).

    Currently, it is unknown what type of lines impact sage-grouse populations, and to what extent. There will be new distribution and transmission lines that will need to be built to service existing approved projects.

    If the need for future distribution and transmission lines is likely, new projects that require a DDCT for approval should include distribution and transmission lines in their DDCT as part of the proposed disturbance. If it is absolutely necessary to site new distribution and transmission lines through a core area outside of an existing corridor and lines cannot be buried, lines should be sited to minimize any potential impact on sage grouse or their habitats, and preferentially consider siting along or adjacent to existing long-term linear disturbance features whenever possible (i.e., along existing occupied above ground utilities, roads).

    Lines permitted but not located in an Executive Order 2011-5 transmission corridor (described above) will be counted towards the 5% disturbance calculation. Line disturbance is equal to right-of-way (ROW) Width x Length and includes all access roads, staging areas, and other surface disturbance associated with construction outside of the ROW.

    All new transmission and distribution towers/structures should be designed to include raptor proofing/perch deterrent

    Pipelines
    Any new pipelines constructed in utility corridors established by and as defined in BLM Resource Management Plans (RMP) including those portions of the corridors located on non-Federal lands in core population areas, that have been disturbed by a previous utility installation, are exempt from conducting a DDCT analysis and will not be included in disturbance calculations for any new projects located outside these corridors. In essence BLM RMP established corridors occupied by utility infrastructure are considered unsuitable habitat for the purpose of DDCT calculations and will not be counted in the numerator or denominator. New pipelines outside BLM RMP corridors, but in core population areas, would contribute towards the 5% surface disturbance calculation until the area is reclaimed to suitable sage grouse habitat.
    Units located within a new project DDCT
    When dealing with situations where the DDCT encounters a Federal Unit established prior to 8.1.2008, the BLM field manager will need to work collaboratively with both the unit holders and the project proponents to determine if the existing unit boundary accurately reflects the actual disturbance likely to occur within the unit under a full development scenario. It is imperative that each of these situations is addressed with flexibility and on the ground knowledge of the landscape and habitat within the DDCT Assessment Area:
    • New Development inside Units: The key to planning development in units within core areas is to create the least amount of disturbance to suitable habitat. A unit is not automatically considered an approved activity; however, there is an expectation that development of the unit will occur. Each situation will need to be handled case-by-case and information such as development plans and reservoir characteristics will play into the BLM’s decision on how to manage density and disturbance. In many cases this will best be accomplished by concentrating activity within existing (prior to 8.1.2008) unit boundaries. Disturbance and density calculations may exceed the thresholds for a DDCT because development is being concentrated in a pre 8.1.2008 unit.
    • New Development outside Units: Within existing, (pre- 8.1.2008) recognized federal oil and gas units and other recognized developments (per Executive Order 2011-5 page 2), coordination will be a key element for the BLM, the existing unit holder, and any new project proponent inside or outside the unit. A unit will be considered 100% disturbed based on the current unit boundary and will be counted as 1 disruption unless a plan of development showing long-term development is available for consideration. A unit will often have an approved plan of development that contemplates a shorter time than the life of the project, so available information may only show a portion of the entire development. In the event that a unit within the DDCT assessment area, but outside the project area, causes the project to exceed the disturbance/disruption thresholds when the unit is considered 100% disturbed and 1 disruption per 640 acres, the BLM Field Manager must work with the unit operator to determine actual development plans or the proposed project will violate the Executive Order.

    Features that do not contribute to the disturbance and disruption thresholds

    Exempt (“de minimus”) Activities
    Existing Land Uses and Landowner Activities in Greater Sage-Grouse Core Population Areas That Do Not Require State Agency Review for Consistency With Executive Order No. 2011-02
    1. Existing animal husbandry practices (including branding, docking, herding, trailing, etc).
    2. Existing fanning practices (excluding conversion of sagebrush/grassland to agricultural lands).
    3. Existing grazing operations that utilize recognized rangeland management practices (allotment management plans, NRCS grazing plans, prescribed grazing plans, etc).
    4. Construction of agricultural reservoirs and aquatic habitat improvements less than 10 surface acres and drilling of agriculture and residential water wells (including installation of tanks, water windmills and solar water pumps) more than 0.6 miles from the perimeter of the lek. Within 0.6 miles from leks no review is required if construction does not occur March 15 to June 30 and construction does not occur on the lek. All water tanks shall have escape ramps. Any terrestrial habitat improvements <10 acres will require compliance with the SGEOSGIT
    5. Agricultural and residential electrical distribution lines more than 0.6 miles from leks. Within 0.6 miles from leks no review is required if construction does not occur March 1 5 to June 30 and construction does not occur on the lek. Raptor perching deterrents shall be installed on all poles within 0.6 miles from leks.
    6. Pole fences. Wire fences if fitted with visibility markers where high potential for collisions has been documentedSGIT
    7. Irrigation (excluding the conversion of sagebrush/grassland to new irrigated lands).
    8. Spring development if the spring is protected with fencing and enough water remains at the site to provide mesic (wet) vegetation.
    9. Herbicide use within existing road, pipeline and power line rights-of-way. Herbicides application using spot treatment. Grasshopper/Mormon cricket control following Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAATS) protocol.
    10. Existing county road maintenance.
    11. Cultural resource pedestrian surveys.
    12. Emergency response.
    Approved by the SGIT on July 10th, 2012
    Approved by the SGIT on March 22nd, 2012
    Approved by the SGIT on October 11th, 2012